Physics first calculated the pressure distribution inside the proton and found that in the most intense point it reaches 1035 Pa, 10 times exceeding the indicators in the center of the neutron star.
Neutron stars are one of the most dense objects in the universe. Matter in them is so compressed that one teaspoon of the substance will be about 15 times heavier than the moon. However, researchers from the Massachusetts Technological Institute found that the conditions inside the proton are much more severe.
It turned out that the kernel strives to break out the outside, and the surrounding region pushes it inside. This can be compared with a inflating tennis ball inside the collapse of the soccer ball. Related pressure stabilizes the overall structure of the proton.
Physics used previously performed measurements of the core conditions of the fundamental particle, which took into account only quarks, and added the effect of gluons into the model. The command used the method of lattice quantum chromodynamics, which is a system of equations describing strong interaction. The calculation of the interaction of quarks with gluons requires very complex computing, so they involved several supercomputers at once.
After 18 months of analyzing various configurations, scientists from MIT identified the average pressure at each point from the proton cent to its edge. As expected, the contribution of gluons has a significant impact on the pressure distribution, increasing the indicator at the most intensive point to 1035 Pa, which is about 10 times higher than in the center of the neutron star.
Pressure distribution scheme in proton.
Inside the proton there is a bubble quantum vacuum couple of quarks and antiquarks, as well as gluons appearing and disappearing. Although the calculations include these fluctuations, it will require much more powerful detectors to confirm them, such as an electron-ion collider.
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